- using /j/ "y" (job sounds like yob)
- using /ʒ/ instead (page sounds like pazh)
- using /tʃ/ "ch" (devoicing - Judge sounds like chuch)
The most common errors for /dʒ/ are:
One challenge that the /dʒ/ "j" sounds presents for pronunciation is that it is not always spelled the same way. The most common spellings are the letters J and G at the start of words, and the letters -ge and -dge at the ends of words. Sometimes in the middle of words, there are some "hidden" j sounds. Below, find examples of the spelling of /dʒ/ in the middle of words.
as j: enjoy - injure - major - majority - object - project - reject - subject
as ge/gi/gy: agency - apologize - biology - danger - energy - engineer - imagine - intelligent - longitude - Los Angeles - magic - pigeon - register - refrigerator - original - region - Roger - strategy - technology - urgent - vegetable - Virginia
as dj: adjust as dge: badger - budget
as d: education, educate, graduate, gradual, individual, procedure, soldier, fraudulent
One of the most frequently occurring accent error patterns is using and "s" sound at the end of a word when you should be saying a "z" sound. Use the videos below to learn how to correct this error pattern, and how to know when letter s says "s" and when it says "z."
Guidelines for pronouncing letter "s" at the ends of words:
If you see an s or se at the end of the word, it is usually pronounce /z/. Check the dictionary to be sure.
Spelled letters -ss, say /s/
examples: glass, grass, less, guess
Spelled letters -ce, say /s/
examples: ice, place, space, face
Spelled letter -s, Usually /z/
examples: was, is, goes, his, as, eyes (say "waz, iz, goez, hiz, az, eyez")
Spelled letter -s, (sometimes s)
examples: yes, us
Spelled letters -se, Usually /z/
examples: those, use, these, please (say "thoz, uz, thez, pleaaz")
Spelled letters -se, (sometimes s)
examples: house, goose, lease
A common error pattern for native Spanish speakers is to confuse the "Y" and "J" sounds at the start of words. Use the video below to help you differentiate these two sounds and correct this error pattern.
Want more practice on this sound? You can findmore about this here.
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If your native language is Spanish, Farsi, Portuguese, Tagalog or Ilocano, you may have this pattern when saying words that start with s. Read more here.
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